When young children are upset, they usually need help from adults to calm down. And the more upset they are, the more help they need!
When children are distressed, acting out, or having a tantrum or a meltdown, they don't often know what to do. Sometime as adults we don't know what to do, either! We may try distraction ("Look at this book"), reassurance ("You're okay"), questioning ("Why are you crying?), reasoning ("We have to clean up so we can have our snack") or consequences ("You need to be by yourself until you can calm down"). Unfortunately, these efforts don't always work as well as we'd like.
Brain research and experts in child development, psychology and psychiatry show us a better way (1, 2, 4, 7). To handle their upset, children need three things from adults: Connection, help with calming, and to be treated with empathy and compassion. In my Framework of Emotional Support, I call these the 3 C's. Let's look at strategies for each of the 3 C's.
After giving empathy, show compassion by offering to help the child deal with the feeling. Let them know "I'm here to help." Your job is to help them deal with the feeling, not to "give in" to what the child wanted that started their upset.
I hope these strategies help you support upset children with the 3 C's of connection, calming, and compassion.
Later, when children are calm and ready to learn, we can provide the other support they need. We can build their capacity for self-regulation and resilience by teaching them what to do instead and applying other strategies and environmental supports to help them handle future challenges. Watch for the next blog post for information about this fourth "C'.".
References and Resources:
(Written with Marjorie Wild)
In honor of Autism Acceptance Month, here are 7 tips for working with children on the autism spectrum:
1. Find ways to teach children skills that will help them interact
When a child wants to join a play group, be a social coach to all the children in your care. Model appropriate peer support and acceptance whether the environment includes classmates, family or friends.
2. Use clear and concise language
Give simple directions. Avoid multistep directions or asking the same thing a different way before the child has had time to process and respond. Allowing ample wait time helps young children and all those who may need extra time to process directions or requests.
4. Keep choices clear and limited
If a child is likely to be overwhelmed by too many choices or has limited verbal skills, offer two acceptable choices, such as apples or grapes for snack. (If a child is non-verbal the choice can be made using pictures or the items.) If offering acceptable activity choices following an inappropriate behavior, an example might be, “You can help your friends in the block area build their wall, or you can build something with your own blocks. You cannot knock their blocks down.”
6. Make consequences consistent and natural
Help children understand and predict consequences by being consistent. As with consistent routines, there can be comfort and calming in predictability and in consequences that are natural, like putting a toy away before beginning a new activity.
7. Identify what triggers strong reactions
Be aware of how a child’s sensory sensitivity may be affecting his/her behavior and how that affects their ability to self-regulate. A child whose brain is in fight, flight or freeze mode because of a sensory trigger will need help with calming before he/she can process a lesson or reflect on the behavior. Remove distractions such as noise or an overstimulating visual background when necessary.
References & Resources:
Albert Einstein College of Medicine Autism Spectrum Disorder Defined. (2013, Jan 15). https://youtu.be/bo4-5xnRcYU
Center on the Social Emotional Foundations of Early Learning. (n.d.). Resources: Preschool training modules. http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/resources/training_preschool.html#mod3b
Ganz, J.B. & M.M. Flores. (2010). Implementing visual cues for young children with autism spectrum disorders and their classmates. Young Children 65 (3): 78-83.
Head Start Center for Inclusion. (n.d.). Classroom visuals and supports. Teacher Tools. http://headstartinclusion.org/teacher-tools#visual
Kaplan Early Learning Company. (n.d.). Supporting children with autism. https://www.kaplanco.com/ii/autism
National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Autism spectrum disorder. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd/index.shtml
OCALI Autism Certification Center (n.d.). ASD strategies in action. https://autismcertificationcenter.org/
Villa, J. & L. Colker. (2006). A personal story: making inclusion work. Young Children 61 (1): 96-100.
Willis, C. (2009). Young children with autism spectrum disorder: strategies that work. Young Children 64 (1): 81-89.
Willis, C. (2006). Teaching Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Beltsville, MD: Gryphon House.
5 Tips for teaching SEL
Written with Kristen K. Carroll
What is Social Emotional Learning?
According to Committee for Children, "Social-emotional learning (SEL) is the process of developing the self-awareness, self-control, and interpersonal skills that are vital for school, work, and life success." www.cfchildren.org/what-is-social-emotional-learning/
To celebrate SEL Day, we're sharing five ideas for promoting SEL in your classroom, program, school, or home:
4. Provide practice of problem-solving.
Problem solving skills take a lot of practice and can be learned through opportunities for peer conflict resolution. Encouraging children to attempt to figure out how to solve a problem on their own promotes independence and self-confidence. Practice can also come from discussing scenarios and providing feedback on various solutions. When children learn to have healthy discussions and use active listening, they develop respect for others' opinions, even when they disagree.
In my preschool classroom, I taught children a simple method of problem-solving. I coached them through the process, and eventually they could solve problems themselves!
(Written with Kristen K. Carroll)
First, let's define diversity, equity and inclusion. Here's what the terms mean to me:
We encourage everyone to model inclusion and respect for diversity in your classroom, program, or home and in the community. As we strive for equity, we can begin with a examination of our attitude.
A – Attitude
Are we demonstrating that differences are to be celebrated, that everyone belongs, and that we can meet each child where they are, providing what they need to reach challenging but achievable goals? When we have an attitude of respect for others, we exude that mindset and demonstrate it to our children through our actions and words.
A great way to show children our attitude of honoring diversity and inclusion is through the wonderful world of books!
Here are a just a few suggestions to reinforce kindness, inclusion, and respect for all.
Another way to honor diversity and model inclusion would be to include depictions of or interactions with people of all races, abilities and other social identities throughout your classroom or home environment. Are multicultural dolls and pictures of all types of people easily accessible to your children? Do you provide opportunities for your children to interact with people from all backgrounds and walks of life?
C- Classroom Activities/ Cool Ideas to Try at Home
That leads us to activities to do in the classroom or at home. Here are some ideas for reinforcing kindness, honoring diversity, and encouraging inclusion:
As we implement activities to honor diversity and inclusion, let’s remember to incorporate them year-round. Avoid a “tourist approach,” where children “visit” other cultures only during holidays or special occasions; instead, provide activities that broaden children’s awareness of different ways of doing things.
As we are reminded to honor Black historical figures this month, let’s remember all the ways that we can show our respect for them – and others, in the past and in the present – throughout the entire year.
Check out my previous blog post on mindfulness activities for children. Remember that we need to teach these strategies when children are calm and provide lots of opportunities for practice. Eventually children will be able to practice mindfulness themselves when they are upset. What a valuable skill for life-long self-regulation - and for a calmer classroom in the meantime!
Here are four more mindfulness activities to help you to cultivate calmness in your classroom or home life. Please share your own as well - let's support one another as we strive for a better 2022!
Add these four mindfulness activities to your repertoire, and please share your favorites with us.
We at ECS are wishing you a happy, healthy, and calmer 2022!
I hope these quotes will inspire you to use mindfulness to take care of yourself as well. Try focusing your attention on your breath, your body, or your surroundings. Or use awareness as you do an activity you find relaxing, such as walking or jogging; dancing or listening to music; journaling, drawing, or painting; sewing, baking or gardening. You may also want to focus your mind on positive thoughts, like the people and the things you are grateful for and the things you've been able to accomplish.
When the stress of the holidays - or life in general - gets you down, try a few mindfulness practices. Perhaps, as they did for me today, they will help you feel a little calmer.
All of us at ECS are wishing you peace and happiness this holiday season!
7 Mindfulness Activities for Children
Mindfulness activities help build children's capacity for self-regulation. If you teach these activities when children are calm and provide lots of opportunities for practice, children may be able to do some of them when they are upset. They'll need lots of help, especially at first: You can model the activity (not just once or twice, but many times), then provide prompts or cues (little reminders to use the activities). Eventually your children may be able to use mindfulness activities independently. A bonus is that you'll have fewer tantrums and meltdowns to handle.
Incorporate some of these mindfulness activities into your program or home life. You'll be teaching a valuable life skill - and helping to create calmness in your life, too!
Here are seven mindfulness activities that may be fun for children and adults, too. Watch this blog for lots more mindfulness ideas for children and some encouragement for you as well! (f you don't want to wait, check out this year's posts on social media (@earlychildhoodspecialties on Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn.) I'd love to hear your own activity ideas in the comments, so please share. We're all in this together!
For toddlers, blowing bubbles can be a good introduction to mindfulness. When they are upset, rather than simply distracting them with a toy, blow some bubbles. You can say something like “bye-bye sad,” which will eventually help children connect bubble blowing with the idea of letting go. Take slow, gentle breaths and encourage the children to do the same.
Research shows that taking deep breaths helps calm the fight or flight stress response for children and adults. Deep breathing is a great place to start practicing mindfulness, and there are so many activities to try - here I'm sharing just two.
You don't have to serve hot chocolate for this activity! Just let the children pretend they are holding a cup of cocoa and practice breathing gently in and out. What other foods can your children pretend to smell and cool down with their breath?
The most important part of deep or "belly breathing" is to focus on your breath going in and out. You can also practice taking deeper breaths by concentrating on using your diaphragm, the muscle under your lungs that goes down when you breathe in and up when you breathe out. One way to help you do this is to put your hand on your belly. You should see your belly go out as you breathe in and go in as you breathe out. If you're new at this, it's easiest to do while lying on your back.
Children may enjoy having a stuffed animal or toy on their belly and watching it go up and down. This is a great activity for helping children relax for nap or rest time!
Besides deep breathing, sensory experiences such as eating provide a wonderful opportunity to practice mindfulness.
During a meal or snack, help slow down the experience and try to get children to engage the five senses to notice everything about their food. Here are some questions you could ask:
-How does it look?
-How does it smell?
-How does it feel to your fingers or on your fork? How does it feel in your mouth?
-How does it taste?
-How does it sound when you break or cut it? When you bite or chew it?
Eating mindfully may have the added benefits of helping all of you enjoy the food and one another. It will probably mealtime calmer, too!
You probably already have a sensory play area in your classroom or home. You can suggest mindful play by encouraging children to focus on the sensations of their fingers and both sides of their hands as they explore. They may also want to notice what they smell and hear as well. Rotate through a variety of wet and dry sensory materials, and provide sensory bins both indoors and outdoors.
Some of my favorite sensory materials are kinetic sand and water beads. Which ones do your children enjoy most?
Another type of mindfulness activities is guided meditation. Here's one to try:
Have children lie on their backs and close their eyes. Ask them to take a few deep breaths, noticing how their bellies move in and out.
Then ask them to pay attention to other parts of their bodies one at a time, relaxing them if they can. You may want to limit the number of parts at first (perhaps starting with feet, legs, belly, arms, hands).
As you guide children through this exercise, calmly talk with them about how their body parts may feel. Reassure them that it’s hard to relax sometimes, and encourage them to keep trying. With practice they will improve!
This is a great mindfulness activity that also helps children to practice gratitude - it's perfect to try as Thanksgiving approaches!
When children are calm, ask them to think of three good things happening in their lives. Practice this often, and it may help children – and you – develop an attitude of gratitude.
Let children know that when we are feeling unhappy, it’s okay to feel sad. But when we do, thinking of three good things can help us feel better.
So now you have a few ideas for mindfulness activities for children. I hope they bring you and your children calmness as we approach the hectic end-of-year holiday season!
References & Resources
Thanks to Shareen Ratnani for sharing her presentation, "Let's Talk Mindfulness Activities for Children", presented on February 10, 2021 at Bonnie's Global Cafe for the World Forum on Early Care and Education. Find some of her mindfulness activities on her YouTube channel.
For now, let's focus on the "why." How can we, our children, and our classrooms benefit from practicing mindfulness and from teaching it to children? Personally, I've found that practicing mindfulness this past year has helped me to handle the stress that the COVID-19 pandemic has added to my life. I've also noticed improvement in these seven benefits of mindfulness that research demonstrates or suggests:
1. Mindfulness helps us manage our emotions in stressful situations.
When we're stressed out, we don't do our best thinking or self-regulating. We may tend to react to things that trigger us, rather than responding in a thoughtful, compassionate and intentional way. Mindfulness helps to lengthen the amount of time between when something upsets us and when we react, so we are more likely to respond in a way that reflects the best version of ourselves.
2. Mindfulness allows us to accept ourselves without judgment.
When we are mindful, we accept whatever is happening without judging it. That includes self-judgment. My whole life I've had a tendency to beat myself up over mistakes, while forgiving others theirs. By becoming mindful, I've learned to focus more on "What can I learn from this?" and "How can I make amends? and less on "I'm an idiot!" or "I can't do anything right!" This shift in mindset actually helps me make fewer mistakes (although I still make plenty) and puts me on the path to become the best version of myself that I can be.
3. Mindfulness can lower our anxiety level and reduce stress.
The past two years have been especially stressful for me; I bet they have been for you as well. So we all can probably use some assistance in reducing our stress and anxiety levels. In looking at research on perceived stress for early childhood teachers, I discovered that mindfulness does just that. In early childhood classrooms, mindfulness has the added benefit of improving classroom climate for both adults and children. (2)
4. Mindfulness can help us get along better with others.
A recent study demonstrated that mindfulness programs helped children to become more considerate, helpful, and caring. They were also more likely to share and to be kind to younger children. (6) This finding is consistent with other research showing that mindfulness activities at school help to promote prosocial behaviors.
5. Mindfulness can improve our attentional processes.
In a study of the effects of mindfulness training on three- and four-year olds, the children greatly improved their ability to focus their attention. (3) This makes sense, because the mindfulness activities the children practiced included belly breathing and paying attention to a specific sensory system. They also learned to relax and to gain awareness of each body part. Other research (i.e., 5) has demonstrated improved attention for older children and adults, including those with autism and ADHD. So there’s a benefit for everyone to improve their focus!
6. Mindfulness helps us to build resilience.
Resilience is the ability to "bounce back" after facing a setback or challenge. While all adults and children can build their resilience by being mindful, research demonstrates that some children can especially benefit: Children with mental, emotional, or behavioral conditions, and those who have been exposed to traumatic experiences. (1)
If there are children experiencing these problems in your classroom or home, try helping them practice a few mindfulness activities - and practice them yourself when their behaviors "push your buttons". The practice of mindfulness in conjunction with a strong relationship will do wonders to help you and your children handle and prevent those troublesome behaviors.
This brings us to the next benefit of mindfulness...
7. Mindfulness can improve our classroom management.
Research shows that teachers’ mindfulness decreases challenging behaviors and increases children’s compliance with teacher requests. (4) Who doesn't want to see fewer challenging behaviors in their classroom or home? Mindfulness helps us change our perception, viewing children with positive intent (assuming they are doing the best they can under the circumstances) and their troublesome behavior as an opportunity to teach children how to do better.
With all these benefits of mindfulness, why not give it a try? Remember, mindfulness is something we develop though practice, not something we're born with. We can all learn to do it, both children and adults. And the good news is, practicing mindfulness only takes a moment!
So anytime you have a minute or two, try a mindfulness activity like focusing on your breathing. When you do, you'll be benefitting yourself, your children, and your classroom, too!
Again, watch for upcoming blog posts to get lots of ideas and resources about mindfulness, and please share your own mindfulness practices in the comments.
I'm wishing you peace and wellness!
The most important thing adults can do for children is to provide them with a warm, caring relationship. Be their attachment figure, the special person they can turn to with trust that their needs will be met. Whatever role you play in the lives of young children, you are making an impact both now and for their lifetimes. By nurturing responsive relationships with children, you are not only providing the secure base that allows them to explore their world. You are also setting a strong foundation for the learning, behavior, and health in their futures, by helping them build strong brains with the capacity to be self-regulated and resilient.
As young children's caregivers and teachers, we have an incredibly important and challenging job. Here are a few of my favorite motivational quotes to encourage you.
Encouragement from ECS:
Here's a quote from a child development theorist that reminds us of the most important thing young children need to thrive - Love!
Urie Bronenbrenner was a renowned developmental psychologist whose work helped to establish the federal Head Start program. His Ecological Systems Theory stressed that the environments in which children grow deeply affect their development. Bronfenbrenner showed how policies and programs that support families, communities, and the larger society have a huge impact on children's health and well-being. (6)
Within our family, child care, and educational environments, we can support children by showing them we really care, no matter what!
Rita Pierson was a passionate educator from here in Houston, Texas. She was an advocate for underserved children and understood the importance of teacher-child relationships for students' learning and self-esteem. For some powerful inspiration, watch her TED talk; you'll be in good company - it has been viewed over 13 million times!
She encourages us to go the extra mile for our children, no matter how challenging it is - or they are! Although Pierson has passed away, her legacy lives on.
You have it in you to be the champion for the children you teach, even the "tough ones" - they are the ones who need you the most. Let's follow Rita's example and make a difference in all our children's lives!
When you give the gift of a smile to a child, you receive one as well - even if the child doesn't smile back.
Mother Teresa, a Catholic Saint and founder of the Missions of Charity, is known worldwide for her service to the poorest of the poor in Calcutta, India.
We can't all rise to the level of service that Mother Teresa devoted her life to, but we can serve our children by doing our best to meet their needs. We can start with the simplest of things - a smile! It will help them feel our love and care. Try smiling more with your children - it will brighten their days and yours!
A wonderful way to improve children's behavior is to focus on strengthening your relationships.
PJ Caposey is an award-winning educator and author who is currently serving as a school district superintendent in Illinois. Caposey advocates for improvement of school systems, believing that an emphasis on teacher-student relationships are a big part of the needed change. He tells us that "great teachers have the goal of serving and connecting with students first - not creating a compliant culture." (3).
So be a great teacher of young children. You can start by Just having fun with your kids. You will be strengthening your connections and improving behavior at the same time!
Children who are exhibiting challenging behaviors are crying out for connection. It's difficult to feel loving toward a child who is hurting others or us, but we must give them what they need in that moment: connection and emotional safety.
Dr. Becky Bailey, founder of Conscious Discipline®, is "an award-winning author, renowned teacher and internationally recognized expert in childhood education and developmental psychology." (4) She encourages us to see children with positive intent: Assume that they are doing the best they can and that they need our help to do better.
How can we help children improve their behavior? Start with a strong, caring relationship!
Dr. Bruce Perry is a renowned clinician and researcher specializing in children’s mental health. His clinical research and practice has focused on the effects of neglect and trauma in children as well as in adolescents and adults. His work has been "instrumental in describing how childhood experiences, including neglect and traumatic stress, change the biology of the brain – and, thereby, the health of the child." Dr. Perry's "Neurosequential Model©, a developmentally sensitive, neurobiology-informed approach" to clinical work, education and caregiving is used by many organizations that serve at-risk children and their families. (1)
Dr. Perry's work illustrates that we can change children's lives for the better when we focus on our relationships with them. We may become the most influential person in a child's life, helping them develop to their full potential. What can you do to help children to heal when they have experienced trauma?
The Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University "supports scientific research that can inform the testing, implementation, and refinement of strategies designed to achieve significantly better life outcomes for children facing adversity." (7) Check out the Center's Resource Library for helpful videos, infographics and papers.
Children need healthy relationships to thrive, and it's our job as caregivers to help build those relationships! What are some things you do to help children feel connected to you?
John Bosco was an Italian priest who dedicated his life to the education of the poor, especially the boys working as child laborers in Turin, Italy. He modeled his belief that educators should act like caring parents; he demonstrated gentleness and kindness as he taught the boys and provided their lodging and other material needs. Bosco realized that for children to feel loved, educators must build friendly relationships with them, by sharing in their interests and joining in their play. (2) He founded two religious orders to encourage others to emphasize love, reason and religion in their teaching. After his death he was canonized a saint in the Roman Catholic Church.
St. John Bosco's quote that reminds us that the most important thing we can do for children is to help them feel loved - no matter what! This is especially important now when COVID has had everyone stressed. What are you doing that shows helps children know you care?
I hope these eight quotes help to encourage you as you do the difficult but rewarding work of educating the children in your care. If you focus on establishing and strengthening your relationships with each of them, you will be giving them the strongest foundation for their future success. You may also be giving yourself a gift as well: You'll be sharing in the children's joy and wonder as they discover the world around them!
References & Resources
1. "State suggestions or directions in a positive form."
Tell children what they should do instead of what they should not. Keep directions simple so children will understand what is expected of them. Be specific so they know exactly how to follow your directions. "Be nice" or "Share" may be too general to help children change their behavior. "Use kind words like ___" or "Give it to her when you are finished playing with it" are more precise.
Here are a few more examples of positive instructions:
• “Use a soft voice” instead of “Don’t yell”
• “Walk” instead of “Don’t run”
• “Put your feet on the floor” rather than “Don’t climb on the table”
2. "Give the child a choice only when you intend to leave the situation up to him."
3. "Use your voice as a teaching tool."
Young children can be sensitive to adults' voices - they may perceive our tone as unfriendly or angry, even if we are not using a loud or harsh voice. Use a pleasant tone that communicates "I like being with you" whenever possible. To get children's attention, get close and use a quiet voice, or try singing. When children must do something, be like Mary Poppins, "kind but extremely firm"!
4. "Make health and safety of the children a primary concern."
The COVID-19 pandemic has certainly made all of us even more aware of the primary importance of children's health and safety. Although we knew beforehand to wash hands diligently, to clean and sanitize toys, and to avoid sharing eating utensils, our current protocols have probably increased our vigilance of these and many other practices. Even after the threat of this deadly disease has passed, we must continue to minimize the risk of communicable diseases.
The physical environment must also provide for safe play, both indoors and out. Survey all areas before allowing children to enter. Ensure all activities have adequate supervision. [See guide #14 for more on supervising.]
5. "Use methods of guidance that build the child’s self-respect."
6. "Help a child set standards based on his/her own past performance, rather than on comparison with peers."
Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) requires that we meet children where they are and help them to meet challenging but achievable goals. What one child is capable of may be very different from what another can do, so avoid comparing one child to another. Instead, point out the progress the child is making: "Last week you couldn't walk all the way across the balance beam. Today you did it!" Avoid even subtle ways of using comparisons to influence behavior ("Susan is sitting quietly") and discourage competition between children, too. Encourage cooperative play and helping others, and you will be improving children's behavior and self-esteem and developing a sense of community, too.
8. "Time directions and suggestions for maximum effectiveness."
Timing is important when guiding children’s behavior. Children should be given a chance to work things out for themselves, but not get too frustrated or upset. Remember DAP - goals should be challenging but achievable.
One consideration of timing your guidance is to notice the child's emotional state. When they are really upset they are not ready to learn. Save your guidance for a few minutes, and help them calm down and feel connected first.
Another timing tip is to set consequences that follow the behavior as soon as possible. Having to leave the block area after deliberately knocking over another child's structure would be an example of an immediate consequence. If you can't time it that way, at least connect the consequence to the behavior. Having to clean up a large mess of one's making is a logical consequence; sitting out at playtime later in the day is not.
[See guide #11 for more about following up on limits.]
9. "Observe the individual ways children use art media, explore the materials yourself, but avoid making models for children to copy."
You may also explore the media yourself. Avoid judgements of children's creations, even positive ones. Instead of saying you like a child's painting when asked, point out something you notice about the painting ("You used lots of red and blue") or about the child ("Your smile is telling me you are happy with it").
10. "Give the child the minimum of help in order that s/he may have the maximum chance to grow in independence."
Allowing children to do things themselves helps them to develop self-help skills. Even if they are struggling, they may not want our assistance, and we can show respect by honoring their wishes. If a child asks for help, scaffold his or her learning by offering the least amount of help he or she needs to do the task. Over time, as children become more confident and skilled, they will need less and less help from adults.
One note about this guide: It's important to recognize cultural differences in doing for others; doing something the other person is capable of may be seen by some as a way of strengthening their relationship.
11. "Make your directions effective by reinforcing them when necessary."
12. "Learn to foresee and prevent rather than “mop up” after difficulty."
There is an old saying, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." When guiding young children's behavior, anticipating and preventing problems is usually the best strategy by far. Be especially sensitive to those children who experience difficulties getting along with others. Entering a group of children at play is an incredibly difficult skill for some, and they benefit from us giving suggestions ahead of time rather than waiting until they encounter a problem. T Socially successful children observe the play and find a way to join in without disrupting it. You can help other children do this as well. The better you know the children, the better you can anticipating their actions - and guide them toward success.
13. "Clearly define and consistently maintain limits when they are necessary."
14. "Use the most strategic positions for supervising."
Always be alert to the entire environment; supervise the children as if you are the only adult around. Get into the habit of positioning yourself where you can see as much as possible, and move about to check on areas that are difficult to see at all times. For safety you must be able to observe all the children. Many times a teacher is often in a better Getting at the children’s level is ideal for supervising and for allowing the children to approach you. Of course, if there are two or more adults, position yourselves in different areas so all may be seen.
15. "Increase your own awareness by observing and taking notes."
I hope you find these 15 guides as useful as I did when I was a student and beginning teacher. I wish you well as you use positive techniques to guide your children's behavior! Coming up in future posts: Handling and preventing challenging behaviors - stay tuned!
I'm Diane Goyette, a Child Development Specialist, Trainer, Consultant and Keynote Speaker. I'm excited to share my blog!